Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

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dabaxter
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Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

Postby dabaxter » Tue May 30, 2017 10:25 pm

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FatherOf2
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Re: Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

Postby FatherOf2 » Tue May 30, 2017 11:45 pm

Parents testimonies are here http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/biotech/sd-me-autism-parents-20170525-story.html
A short film with parents and Naviaux himself, talking about the study: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWWF5nN7fUA

FatherOf2
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Re: Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

Postby FatherOf2 » Wed May 31, 2017 12:41 am

Dr Naviaux came up with his theory of Cell Danger Response in 2013: "The cell danger response (CDR) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular metabolic response that is activated when a cell encounters a chemical, physical, or microbial threat that could injure or kill the cell. Common microbial threats are viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Physical threats include heat, salt, or pH shock, or UV or ionizing radiation. Chemical forms of danger include heavy and trace metals like lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and nickel, certain electrophilic aromatic chemicals like the plasticizer bisphenol A, the chemical flame retardants like the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), and certain halogenated pesticides like chlorpyrifos and DDT. Psychological trauma, particularly during childhood, can also activate the cell danger response, produce chronic inflammation, and increase the risk of many disorders ... The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis." http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567724913002390

In the same year of 2013, Dr. Naviaux published his first study of Suramin on mice, where he claimed: "Antipurinergic therapy with suramin corrected all of the core behavioral abnormalities and multisystem comorbidities that we observed in the MIA mouse model of autism spectrum disorders... Long-term therapy with suramin in children with autism is not an FDA-approved usage, and is not recommended because of potentially toxic side effects that can occur with prolonged treatment".

One year later, Dr. Naviaux published another paper about his Suramin study on mice, titled very optimistically, but but misleading "Reversal of autism-like behaviors and metabolism in adult mice with single-dose antipurinergic therapy" Some readers may have erroneously believed that a single-dose Suramin injection is capable of permanently curing autism. But, it is not so. Reading the abstract of the same paper clarifies this: ""Most of the improvements associated with APT were lost after 5 weeks of drug washout, consistent with the 1-week plasma half-life of suramin in mice".

Dr. Naviaux started his human trials in 2015. Now the results are out. The study pretty much confirmed his previous studies on mice that Suramin is very effective at reducing ASD symptoms, but the gains are temporary and disappear by week 5. Now Dr. Naviaux wants to conduct another bigger (stage II) study on humans. But why?

1. The Suramin effect will still be temporary. You can't give Suramin on a monthly basis to keep the gains going because it can cause " potentially toxic side effects" by Dr. Naviaux' own admission. Wikipedia used to contain the following warning about Suramin's adverse effects, which was removed in Nov 2016: "There is a greater than 50% chance of adrenal cortical damage, but only a smaller proportion will require lifelong corticosteroid replacement."

2. FDA approval is a lengthy process (may take 7 years) that requires at least $100mln investment that Dr. Naviaux doesn't have. Even in his first study, his lab went into $500k debt. In this interview http://naviauxlab.ucsd.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Naviaux-QA-5-26-17-v19.pdf, Dr Naviaux explains: "Usually, the multimillion dollar cost of new drug development is covered by the Big Pharma that will benefit from FDA approval. Unfortunately, since suramin is 100-years old, the usual patent laws don’t apply and the next clinical trials will require grass roots support from families and foundations, and other approaches to raise the needed funding."

3. How different are these suramin results from corticosteroid treatment by Prednisolone? Suramin acts as an antagonist of P2X receptors, which are activated by ATP (cell danger response) released by the cells in response to pathogens etc. These P2X receptors are responsble for inflammation and pain. So, Suramin is just a potent anti-inflammatory drug, just like Prednisone. You can give Prednisolone orally as opposed to an IV injection of Suramin. It is also widely available. In the corticosteroid study on autistic children by Dr. Duffy, he writes: ""By approximately one year after cessation of steroid therapy those 17 subjects who had demonstrated clinical language improvement maintained and/or further improved their performance after cessation of treatment." However, in most cases reported by parents, the gains from corticosteroids are temporary just like Suramin's.

4. Does the "metabolic memory" to a no-longer present cellular danger, described by Dr. Naviaux, really exist? May be the danger is still there in the form of a hidden virus, or bacteria (Lyme disease), or toxins (mercury), or brain injury. In this case, antagonizing P2X receptors with Suramin will not remove that danger, but just suppress the danger signal. It is like giving Ibuprofen during flu - it will cure you from the flu. I know about the existence of the immune memory in the form of B-cells. These B-cells are activated by vaccines and are responsible for many cases of regressive autism. See for example the article by Wasilewska "Low serum IgA and increased expression of CD23 on B lymphocytes in peripheral blood in children with regressive autism aged 3-6 years old". Perhaps de-activation of these B-cells will give a more lasting result than antagonizing P2X receptors with Suramin.

FatherOf2
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Re: Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

Postby FatherOf2 » Wed May 31, 2017 1:42 am

Expanding a bit on the immune memory cells. Here is a video that helps to understand how lymphocytes work: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/immunology/v/b-lymphocytes-b-cells

Here is an article that explains the two phases of the immune response (initiation and resolution): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131152/

"The resolution of the immune response does not always result in a return to normality. For example, following clearance of measles virus, the host undergoes a transient state of immunosuppression that is linked to lymphopenia and a switch to Th2 responses that leaves the host susceptible to other infections. Therefore, infections and the immune responses to them can have effects that last beyond the clearance of the pathogen... Defects in the processes that mop up dead cells and get rid of inflammatory mediators such as the cytokines, chemokines, and various arachidonic acid derivatives certainly lead to prolonged inflammation and, in some cases, to autoimmune disease"

Perhaps MMR vaccine leads to the same abnormally activated (non-resolved) immune response especially if given simultaneously with Tylenol, which prevents the liver from detoxification (mopping up dead cells etc as mentioned above). Interestingly, shifting from Th2 back to Th1 is the main goal of Lyme disease protocols.

The things that can resolve an abnormal immune response are IVIG and bone marrow transfer based on the above video and article. But perhaps there are other therapies that can give a lasting effect. I am still researching ...

jaumeb
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Joined: Fri Mar 25, 2016 10:48 am

Re: Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

Postby jaumeb » Wed May 31, 2017 10:15 am

Thanks FO2 for those posts.

Nikkie111
Posts: 369
Joined: Thu Sep 24, 2015 6:26 am

Re: Suramin Anti Parasitic Drug Small Study Shows Promise

Postby Nikkie111 » Wed May 31, 2017 5:25 pm

FatherOf2 wrote:The things that can resolve an abnormal immune response are IVIG and bone marrow transfer based on the above video and article. But perhaps there are other therapies that can give a lasting effect. I am still researching ...

Or maybe immune will start functioning again with the inhibition of viruses with appropriate Antivirals as well as gcmaf which regulates the cytokines so that immune does constantly stay on a th2 stage ...


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