Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity...

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dgdavis64
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Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity...

Postby dgdavis64 » Tue May 14, 2013 11:28 am

What does aluminum AND thimerosal do...

http://link.springer.com/article/10.100 ... 013-8403-1

Immunologic Research
April 2013

Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

C. A. Shaw,
L. Tomljenovic

Abstract

We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states. The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer’s and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS–PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models. In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome.

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Winnie
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby Winnie » Tue May 14, 2013 11:43 am

Well I'm sure that Maria will come around shortly to point out all the problems with this "paper" (not), though meanwhile, here is commentary from an actual researcher whose background is biomedical science and medicine on another Christopher Shaw paper:

And global warming is caused by the decrease in the number of pirates or: Why an inorganic chemistry journal should not publish a vaccine epidemiology paper

http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2011/12/08/and-global-warming-is-caused-by-the-decr/

Lots of interesting discussion in the comments, too.
Last edited by Winnie on Wed May 15, 2013 12:47 am, edited 1 time in total.
Winnie
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Jupiter
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby Jupiter » Tue May 14, 2013 2:29 pm

Winnie wrote:Well I'm sure that Maria will come around shortly to point out all the problems with this "paper," though meanwhile, here is commentary from an actual researcher whose background is biomedical science and medicine:

And global warming is caused by the decrease in the number of pirates or: Why an inorganic chemistry journal should not publish a vaccine epidemiology paper

http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2011/12/08/and-global-warming-is-caused-by-the-decr/

Lots of interesting discussion in the comments, too.


:shock:
Say it ain't so!

kulkulkan
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby kulkulkan » Wed May 15, 2013 12:26 am

This is a different paper (2013) published in Immunological Research by the same group. Anybody have link to the full paper? This is not the first and certainly won't be the the last group studying the adverse role of aluminum adjuvants in vaccine.

Winnie
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby Winnie » Wed May 15, 2013 1:05 am

kulkulkan wrote:This is a different paper (2013) published in Immunological Research by the same group. Anybody have link to the full paper?


Thanks -- I clarified. You can't access the full text unless you pay $40 bucks, have a friend at a university or somewhere who has access, or ask the authors to send it to you (sometimes they will). It is behind a pay wall.



kulkulkan wrote: This is not the first and certainly won't be the the last group studying the adverse role of aluminum adjuvants in vaccine.


The author is very much an outspoken antivaccinationist and runs in those circles. And you are right, he is not the first antivaccinationist (or probably the last) looking for a way that vaccines somehow cause autism. Delong comes to mind as well. But if the paper is poor, the only folks who find it convincing are other antivaccinationists who are also looking for a reason to blame vaccines. Guess we won't be able to discuss this one if we can't access it.

It is interesting that this was bolded in the OP. . .

In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders.


. . . and it doesn't stick out immediately to you considering your comments about vaccination rates on the other active thread pertaining to the other study:

No Differences in Early Immunization Rates Among Children with Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Winnie
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María Luján
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby María Luján » Wed May 15, 2013 7:23 am

Again, not interested in the anti-pro discussion but in unbiased science... and what is happening .

this paper is interesting to read, especially in terms of the analysis of the ASIA condition- and looking also to macrophagic myofascitis in context, that are under research in terms of pediatric presentation.
Nothing is perfect, but anything that it does not fit in the agenda it is anti-vaccine?

PRog. Health Sci. 2012 Vol. 2 N01Neurologic adverse effects following vaccination Sienkiwicz et al.

Unfortunately, there are extremists in any camp.

María Luján
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby María Luján » Wed May 15, 2013 7:34 am

kukulkan
there are several groups looking for the adverse effects of adjuvants
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635355
An animal model
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579772

Immunol Res. 2013 Apr 11.Adverse events following immunization with vaccines containing adjuvants.
Cerpa-Cruz S, Paredes-Casillas P, Landeros Navarro E, Bernard-Medina AG, Martínez-Bonilla G, Gutiérrez-Ureña S.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576057
Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013 Apr;9(4):361-73. doi: 10.1586/eci.13.2.
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld's syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum.
Vera-Lastra O, Medina G, Cruz-Dominguez Mdel P, Jara LJ, Shoenfeld Y.
SourceHospital de Especialidades Centro Médico La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

An adjuvant is a substance that enhances the antigen-specific immune response, induces the release of inflammatory cytokines, and interacts with Toll-like receptors and the NALP3 inflammasome. The immunological consequence of these actions is to stimulate the innate and adaptive immune response. The activation of the immune system by adjuvants, a desirable effect, could trigger manifestations of autoimmunity or autoimmune disease. Recently, a new syndrome was introduced, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), that includes postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis, Gulf War syndrome and siliconosis. This syndrome is characterized by nonspecific and specific manifestations of autoimmune disease. The main substances associated with ASIA are squalene (Gulf War syndrome), aluminum hydroxide (postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis) and silicone with siliconosis. Mineral oil, guaiacol and iodine gadital are also associated with ASIA. The following review describes the wide clinical spectrum and pathogenesis of ASIA including defined autoimmune diseases and nonspecific autoimmune manifestations, as well as the outlook of future research in this field.

you may find more in the links, there are many

dabaxter
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby dabaxter » Wed May 15, 2013 7:29 pm

This is just another among many data points on the correlation between metal toxicity and autism.
Can you say vaccines?
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dgdavis64
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby dgdavis64 » Wed May 15, 2013 10:33 pm

Isn't it curious that someone spends time on a "science blog" (which has zero to do with this particular study) trying to explain away this research when it pertains to autism? Where are all the other similar "science blogs" when it comes to Alzheimer’s and Gulf War Syndrome? Why is Autism the only disease to attract this type of attention?

I see two names who authored this paper, not one. So when someone mentions "the author," in singular, they're in error regardless of what "circles" they think they know the author "runs in."

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Shzi3PnzIjE

Thank you for those links Maria.

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dabaxter
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby dabaxter » Thu May 16, 2013 9:45 am

I think when looking at a complex issue, such as this one, it makes sense to take an A + B + C + D approach. There are a lot of different scientific sources supporting the argument about metals and autism.
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Winnie
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby Winnie » Thu May 16, 2013 10:37 am

dgdavis64 wrote:
I see two names who authored this paper, not one. So when someone mentions "the author," in singular, they're in error regardless of what "circles" they think they know the author "runs in."


An amazing observation and analysis, dg.

As long as you are being keen on details, please note that you opened this thread with the comment

What does aluminum AND thimerosal do...

Yet the 6-line abstract you posted makes no mention of thimerosal. Whatsoever.
Winnie
"Make it a powerful memory, the happiest you can remember."

kulkulkan
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby kulkulkan » Thu May 16, 2013 1:30 pm

In the original 2011 study, if below is true, then (whether causal link to autism or not), it is still quite distressing:

Al is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin whose ability to impact the human nervous system has been known for decades [16,27–29]. For example, exposure to as little as 20 μg/kg bw of Al for period N10 days is sufficient to cause neurodevelopmental delays in preterm infants [28]. In addition, Al is a potent stimulator of the immune system, indeed this is the very reason why it is used as an adjuvant [14,30–34]. Given this, it remains surprising that in spite of over 80 years of use, the safety of Al adjuvants appears to rest largely on assumptions rather than experimental evidence. For example, nothing is known about the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of Al compounds in infants and children [35]. In addition, the mechanisms by which Al adjuvants interact with the immune system remain far from clear [34,35]. In this regard it is notable that many vaccine trials usually use an Al adjuvant containing “placebo” or another vaccine as the “control” group [36–38], rather than a saline control. This study design has not allowed a direct comparison of the efficacy and safety of the antigen alone versus the Al adjuvant. In spite of these gaps in our knowledge about Al adjuvants, the use of Al in vaccines is widely regarded as safe and effective [35,39,40].


On the first referenced study above ( can read abstract here http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NE ... 5293362203 ) on low-birthweight pre-term infants - we know that is a risk-factor for many things / delays including autism - but could it also possibly be due to the IV standard feeding solution (which contained aluminum at least in the late 1990s when this study was done) rather than just being pre-term/low birth weight? This study would suggest yes.

kulkulkan
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby kulkulkan » Thu May 16, 2013 4:37 pm

So, it looks like in response to studies such as the pre-term infant study mentioned above, the FDA decided to do the right thing and reduced the safety limit in parenteral products:

From this study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208446/
In an attempt to limit the risk of aluminum toxicity, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) modified its “Regulations on Aluminum in Large and Small Volume Parenterals Used in Total Parental Nutrition” with the January 2000 Final Rule, enacted in July 2004.13,14 The Final Rule limits the aluminum concentration of large-volume parenteral products to 25 mcg/L. Small-volume parenteral products must state the maximum aluminum concentration at the time of product expiry on the product's label, but no maximum aluminum concentration is otherwise specified. Manufacturers of all PN products must also include a package insert with a standardized warning describing the presence of aluminum in the product; the risk of using the products in infants and patients with impaired kidney function; and a recommended maximum daily aluminum dose of 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day to prevent accumulation and toxicity.


For for a newborn weighing 8 lbs, the limit per day based on 4 to 5mcg/kg/day per above would be 14 to 18 mcg/day. Clearly, this wasn't done for vaccines (perhaps FDA rule is not applicable to vaccines, or maybe it qualifies as small-volume) - most vaccines that use Aluminum as an adjuvant have 125 to 652mcg of Al per shot (for example, Hep B which is given at birth has 250mcg). So, the HepB shot would be 14x times more than FDA's max recommendation for a typical 8 lbs newborn.
Last edited by kulkulkan on Thu May 16, 2013 4:40 pm, edited 1 time in total.

dgdavis64
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby dgdavis64 » Thu May 16, 2013 4:39 pm

Thank you kulkulkan.

If Aluminum is damaging on it's own, then it stands to reason and common sense that thimerosal AND Aluminum together is that much worse.

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kulkulkan
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby kulkulkan » Thu May 16, 2013 5:55 pm

I think it is fair to say no vaccine (or any medicine for that matter) will ever be 100% safe, whether thimersol or aluminum, or other neurotoxic replacement used as a preservative or an adjuvant instead of these two. If some vaccines are being studied for safety using adjuvant in placebo as well (or against another vaccine) as the original study mentioned, that is disturbing and implies to me that adjuvant is already a known confounder that can impact vaccine safety results.

So, at the end of the day, given there is no such thing as (and will never be) vaccines that are 100% safe, it boils down to the efficacy versus safety, and what are acceptable collateral losses/damage in the population for the overall safety of the herd. Historically, this notion has never been challenged before until recently. Is it 1 in 10,000 or is it really 1 in 6? We don't really know.

María Luján
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby María Luján » Fri May 17, 2013 8:03 am

Hi kukulkan
In terms of alum, with the ASIA syndrome in context, the macrophagic myofasciitis- whose presentation in infants and toddlers is unknown-
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010 Nov;20(7):598-601. doi: 10.1038/jes.2009.64. Epub 2009 Dec 16.
Infants' exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months.
Dórea JG, Marques RC.
The success of vaccination programs in reducing and eliminating infectious diseases has contributed to an ever-increasing number of vaccines given at earlier ages (newborns and infants). Exposure to low levels of environmental toxic substances (including metals) at an early age raises plausible concerns over increasingly lower neuro-cognitive rates. Current immunization schedules with vaccines containing aluminum (as adjuvant) are given to infants, but thimerosal (as preservative) is found mostly in vaccines used in non-industrialized countries. Exclusively, breastfed infants (in Brazil) receiving a full recommended schedule of immunizations showed an exceedingly high exposure of Al (225 to 1750 μg per dose) when compared with estimated levels absorbed from breast milk (2.0 μg). This study does not dispute the safety of vaccines but reinforces the need to study long-term effects of early exposure to neuro-toxic substances on the developing brain. Pragmatic vaccine safety needs to embrace conventional toxicology, addressing especial characteristics of unborn fetuses, neonates and infants exposed to low levels of aluminum, and ethylmercury traditionally considered innocuous to the central nervous system.

The level of exposure to Al is higher following this manuscript, depending on the particular vaccines. This is also important to emphasize that ingestion is completely different than injection.

kulkulkan
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby kulkulkan » Fri May 17, 2013 10:34 am

Thanks. Looks like the Al in adjuvant per dose is much higher there (2x-3x). I guess that means can use less antigen (cheaper).

María Luján
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby María Luján » Fri May 17, 2013 11:11 am

The problem is that the higher the dose, the higher the possibility of higher interaction trhough the inflammasome
Lupus. 2012 Feb;21(2):231-8. doi: 10.1177/0961203311430090.
Aluminum as an adjuvant in Crohn's disease induction.
Lerner A.
Alum (AlK(SO(4))(2)) is an adjuvant commonly utilized in vaccines, and is a ubiquitous element used extensively in contemporary life. Food, air, water, waste, the earth's surface, and pharmaceuticals all represent pathways of aluminum (Al) exposure. Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals and is caused by yet unidentified environmental factors. Al is a potential factor for the induction of inflammation in CD, and its immune activities share many characteristics with the immune pathology of CD: many luminal bacterial or dietary compounds can be adsorbed to the metal surface and induce Th1 profile cytokines, shared cytokines/chemokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and intracellular pathways and stress-related molecular expression enhancement, affecting intestinal macrobiota, trans-mural granuloma formation, and colitis induction in an animal CD model. The inflammasome plays a central role in Al mode of action and in CD pathophysiology. It is suggested that Al adjuvant activity can fit between the aberrations of innate and adaptive immune responses occurring in CD. The CD mucosa is confronted with numerous inappropriate bacterial components adsorbed on the Al compound surface, constituting a pro-inflammatory supra-adjuvant. Al fits the diagnostic criteria of the newly described autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. If a cause and effect relationship can be established, the consequences will greatly impact public health and CD prevention and management.


J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Apr;93(4):489-97. doi: 10.1189/jlb.1012543. Epub 2012 Dec 27.
The role of inflammasome-derived IL-1 in driving IL-17 responses.
Mills KH, Dungan LS, Jones SA, Harris J.
NLRs are members of the PRR family that sense microbial pathogens and mediate host innate immune responses to infection. Certain NLRs can assemble into a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, which activates casapse-1 required for the cleavage of immature forms of IL-1β and IL-18 into active, mature cytokines. The inflammasome is activated by conserved, exogenous molecules from microbes and nonmicrobial molecules, such as asbestos, alum, or silica, as well as by endogenous danger signals, such as ATP, amyloid-β, and sodium urate crystals. Activation of the inflammasome is a critical event triggering IL-1-driven inflammation and is central to the pathology of autoinflammatory diseases, such as gout and MWS. Recent studies have also shown IL-1 or IL-18, in synergy with IL-23, can promote IL-17-prduction from Th17 cells and γδ T cells, and this process can be regulated by autophagy. IL-1-driven IL-17 production plays a critical role in host protective immunity to infection with fungi, bacteria, and certain viruses. However, Th17 cells and IL-17-seceting γδ T cells, activated by inflammasome-derived IL-1 or IL-18, have major pathogenic roles in many autoimmune diseases. Consequently, inflammasomes are now major drug targets for many autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, as well as autoinflammatory diseases.

Immunol Lett. 2013 Jan;149(1-2):88-92. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2012.11.005. Epub 2012 Nov 23.
Responses to multiple injections with alum alone compared to injections with alum adsorbed to proteins in mice.
Wang XY, Yao X, Wan YM, Wang B, Xu JQ, Wen YM.
ourceKey Laboratory of Molecular Medical Virology, MOE/MOH, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.

Abstract
New effects and mechanisms of alum on innate immunity have emerged in recent years. A number of cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by aluminum adjuvant have been reported, while the role of NALP3 and inflammasome in the cellular pathway induced by alum is still controversial. The effect of injection of alum alone without vaccine antigen into human has not been reported so far. Recently, in a phase IIIa double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial testing the therapeutic HBsAg-anti-HBs vaccine formulated with alum against chronic viral hepatitis B patients, the placebo group receiving alum only showed substantial therapeutic effects. To explore possible underlying therapeutic mechanisms, mice were treated either with multiple injections of alum alone or with alum adsorbed to proteins (HBsAg-anti-HBs). After 4 injections Gr1(+)/CD11b(+) cells in the spleen were increased in both alum alone and alum adsorbed in proteins groups. Increased Gr1(+)/CD11b(+) cells in spleens remained consistently high in the alum alone treated group, while Gr1(+)/CD11b(+)cells decreased in the alum adsorbed to proteins group after 6 injections. Both treatments triggered increased levels of TNF-alpha measured in the plasma, but only the alum alone treated mice showed increased levels of IL-10. Histology of the liver tissues revealed a higher number of spotty necrotic foci in the alum alone immunized group. Taken together, potent inflammatory responses were induced in the alum alone immunized mice, which suggests that the substantial therapeutic effects observed in chronic hepatitis B patients immunized with alum alone might be attributed to inflammatory responses.


lioralourie
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Re: Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity..

Postby lioralourie » Sat Jan 18, 2014 9:04 pm

UPDATE I have quite a list now. These are only the ones available FULLTEXT, mind you.

the ones from Mediafire are the ones I have somehow, that are not usually available at Pubmed in full text. (So save them!)

DOWNLOAD ALL THESE, READ THEM, AND SHARE THEM. 



1) Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17114826
FULLTEXT available here
http://www.mediafire.com/view/r4h8pb1l8 ... n_Mice.pdf

2) Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration.
J Inorg Biochem. 2009 Nov;103(11):1555-62.FULL TEXT FOR FREE BELOW
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819810/
original ncbi listing is here http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19740540


3) Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain. 2001 Sep;124(Pt 9):1821-31. 
FREE FULL TEXT HERE
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11522584


4) Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations.
Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235057
FULLTEXT AVAILABLE HERE
http://www.mediafire.com/view/potofd3o8 ... ations.pdf
in the journal:
Lupus. 2012 Feb;21(2):223-30. doi: 10.1177/0961203311430221.


5) Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Nov;105(11):1489-99.
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious multisystem developmental disorders and an urgent global public health concern. Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, two key points ought to be considered: (i) children should not be viewed as "small adults" as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; and (ii) if exposure to Al from only few vaccines can lead to cognitive impairment and autoimmunity in adults, is it unreasonable to question whether the current pediatric schedules, often containing 18 Al adjuvanted vaccines, are safe for children? By applying Hill's criteria for establishing causality between exposure and outcome we investigated whether exposure to Al from vaccines could be contributing to the rise in ASD prevalence in the Western world. Our results show that: (i) children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines; (ii) the increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r=0.92, p<0.0001); and (iii) a significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to preschool children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3-4 months of age (Pearson r=0.89-0.94, p=0.0018-0.0248). The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted.

FULLTEXT AVAILABLE AT
http://www.mediafire.com/view/b9g18txgx ... ejovak.pdf



6) Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe?
Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568886
FULLTEXT AVAILABLE HERE
http://www.mediafire.com/view/a2k0hknqs ... c_Shaw.pdf

7) Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity.

FULLTEXT HERE
http://katlynfoxfoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/2013-Shaw-CA-LT-Imm-Res-CNS-Toxicity-of-alum-adjuvants-and-autoimmunity-Immunological-Research.pdf
abstract here http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23609067
Last edited by lioralourie on Mon Nov 17, 2014 4:16 am, edited 1 time in total.


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